Tautonyms, composed of two identical words (e.g., Vulpes
vulpes, the red fox), are too common to list all of them. See
Long, Samuel S., 1996, Tautonyms in Biology, Word Ways 29(3):
146-150, 29(4): 253-257.
Loa loa (a nematode) - shortest
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (hawfinch)
Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (yellow-headed
blackbird) - longest tautonyms.
Bufo bufo bufo (European toad),
Naja naja naja (Sri Lankan cobra) - shortest
Crossoptilon crossoptilon crossoptilon
(Szechuan white eared pheasant) - longest trinomial
Other species are notable as three-way near misses; both parts of the
binomial and the common name differ slightly:
Babyrousa babyrussa (babirusa, a wild
Suricata suricatta (suricate or meerkat, a
south African mongoose)
Of more interest are those cases where the genus and species mean the same
thing in two languages:
Anous stolidus (brown noddy) Greek/Latin:
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry) Gk/La:
Ardea herodias (great blue heron) La/Gk:
Asio otus (long-eared owl) La/Gk: "horned
Asterolinon linum-stellatum (Primulaceae)
Gk: "star flax"/La: "flax star"
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Killitz's murrelet) Gk/La:
Cygnus olor (mute swan) Gk/La: "swan"
Diceros bicornis (black rhino) Gk/La: "two
Equus caballus (horse) La/Gallic: "horse,
Liquidambar styraciflua L. (sweetgum)
Literally (in Latin) "fluid-ambergris flowing-styrax". Ambar
is more commonly but less accurately associated with the amber from
plant resins, and styrax is both a plant and the resin it produces, so
"fluid-resin fluid-resin" would be a reasonable
Megaceryle alcyon (belted kingfisher)
Gk/La: "big kingfisher kingfisher"; it has also been known by the
fully tautonymous synonym Ceryle alcyon.
Melanitta nigra (common scoter) Gk/La:
"black duck black"
Pogona barbata (bearded lizard) Gk/La:
Tayassu tajacu (peccary) Spanish and Portugese
transcriptions of the Guarani "tajasu", peccary
Tetracerus quadricornis (Blainville, 1816)
(four-horned antelope) Gr/La: "four-horned four-horn"
Toxotes jaculatrix (archerfish) Gk/La:
Tragopan satyra (Himalayan pheasant) Pan and
satyrs are commonly represented with legs of goats; "trago-" is Greek
Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758 (hoopoe) in Latin
and Greek, respectively.
Ursus arctos (brown bear) La/Gk: "bear"
Xiphias gladius (swordfish) Gk/La: "sword"
Equisetum Subg. Hippochaete (J. Milde)
Baker (horsetail) La/Gk: "horse bristle"
Finally, these pairs of species deserves note:
Lonicera caprifolium and
L. tragophylla (Caprifoliaceae,
honeysuckles) Both specific epithets mean "goat leaf," in Latin and
Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (greater horseshoe
R. hipposideros (lesser horseshoe bat).
"Ferrumequinum" means horseshoe in Latin; "hipposideros" means the same
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